Seismological Research Laboratory
Main directions of research activity:
The main objectives are:
- the revision of the historical part of the present national earthquake catalogue, on the basis of systematic analyses of existing archive documents – by reevaluating seismic event parameters (magnitude, depth), by finding new and reliable information on seismic events which are not reported yet, by identifying false events in the catalogue;
- the compilation of improved macroseismic maps of strong earthquakes which occurred in Romania during the non-instrumental period.
A revised, more consistent historical catalogue will allow a more realistic assessment of the seismic hazard, at both regional and local scales. Special attention is paid to the integration and standardization of data and procedures in the cross-border areas, in agreement with ERA (European Research Area) strategy.
- Seismic source physics – The studies are concentrated on: (1) source parameter determination (seismic moment tensor – focal mechanism, source time function) using waveform inversion and relative deconvolution techniques; (2) scaling relations for the source parameters; (3) modelling of the seismic process in Vrancea region, geodynamic scenarios.
- Seismicity – The studies are focused on peculiarities of the seismic activity from different seismogenic regions (clustering, migration of hypocenters, size distribution), space-time statistical modeling of the seismicity, detailed analysis of seismicity bursts (earthquake sequences, swarms) in relation with the local tectonics.
- Seismic hazard – The main objective of the work is the assessment of the seismic hazard on the territory of Romania. Probabilistic hazard analyses are carried out, at both local and regional scales. Several studies cover various aspects related to the hazard assessment (characterization of the seismic source zones, attenuation relations, effects of rupture directivity). The results aim to contribute to the formulation of a reliable national building code, to validate or improve the present input specifications.
- Earthquake forecasting – The studies are oriented towards the monitoring of several reported seismic precursors (seismicity patterns, b-value, energy release) and several natural fields (geomagnetic field, ionosphere, electric field), in order to detect anomalies which are potentially related to strong earthquake occurrence.
- SHARE – Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe
- Seismic Attenuation and Anisotropy in the Carpathians and Adjacent Basins: Upper Mantle Role in the Last Stages of Tethyan Closure
- EUROSEISMOS – Saving and Studying the Seismograms of the strongest Euro-Mediterranean Earthquakes
- Radulian, M., et al. “Source parameters of the December 2011–January 2012 earthquake sequence in Southern Carpathians, Romania.” Tectonophysics, 623 (2014): 23-38.
- Leydecker, G., et al. “Probabilistic seismic hazard in terms of intensities for Bulgaria and Romania–updated hazard maps.” Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 8.6 (2008): 1431-1439.
- Popa, M., et al. “Lithosphere–asthenosphere interaction at the Southeastern Carpathian Arc bend: implications for anisotropy.” Tectonophysics 462.1 (2008): 83-88.
- Oros, E., M. Popa, and I. A. Moldovan. “Seismological Data-Base for Banat Seismic Region (Romania)-Part 1: The Parametric Earthquake Catalogue.” Romanian Journal of Physics 53 (2008): 7-8.
- Ardeleanu, Luminita, et al. “Source parameters of weak crustal earthquakes of the Vrancea region from short-period waveform inversion.” pure and applied geophysics 162.3 (2005): 495-513.
- Popa, M., et al. “Attenuation in Southeastern Carpathians area: result of upper mantle inhomogeneity.” Tectonophysics 410.1 (2005): 235-249.
- Constantin, Angela Petruta, and Aurelian Pantea. “Macroseismic field of the October 27, 2004 Vrancea (Romania) moderate subcrustal earthquake.” Journal of seismology 17.4 (2013): 1149-1156.
- Radulian, M., et al. “Catalog of fault plane solutions for the earthquakes occurred on Romanian territory.” (2002).
- The Laboratory is composed of 6 senior researchers (5 PhDs, 1 PhD student): 4 physicists and 2 geophysicists.
- Head: Dr. Radulian Mircea, SR I, physicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Ardeleanu Luminita Angela, SR I, physicist, email@example.com
- Dr. Constantin Petruta Angela, SR II, eng. geophysicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Oros Eugen, SR II, eng. geophysicist, email@example.com
- Drd. Placinta Anica Otilia, SR III, physicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Popescu Emilia, SR I, physicist, email@example.com
National Seismic Network Department
National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) ensures the seismological monitoring of the Romanian territory through the National Seismic Network (NSN), contributing directly to the seismic risk mitigation in the regions affected by strong earthquakes produced in the main seismogenic zones. Therefore, design and development of the NSN are very important tasks to implement reliable strategies for reducing of the negative impact of earthquakes. Presently, the network consists of:
- 1 real time seismic network (125 digital single stations and two arrays)
- 1 strong ground motion network (102 strong motion instruments)
- 9 seismological observatories
- 1 infrasound array
- 1 GPS permanent network
- The National Seismic Network Department is divided in 2 teams: research team and technical-operational team
Seismic network technical-operational team
The seismological monitoring of the Romanian territory is supported by the specific technical activities required for the proper operation and functioning of the seismic and infrasonic stations. Basically, these activities consist of maintenance actions and field works, carried out by the assigned technical personnel. In support of complex seismic monitoring of Romania, the National Seismic Network (NSN) includes a network of 8 Seismological Observatories (SO), where seismic equipment for surveying of the local microseismicity and earthquake precursors is installed. These SO are running by specialized personnel, representing the NSN Operation Team
Main directions of activity
development of the network (site selection, installation, verification) administration of the network communication infrastructure national network integration into the international system maintenance of the central acquisition and processing equipment operation and maintenance of the SO equipment participation in the regional seismic monitoring cooperation with national decision makers in case of major seismic event
Seismic network research team
Main directions research activity :
- The Realtime Seismology group activities regarding all aspects of rapid geophysical data characterization, from automatic bulletin improvements to better shakemaps generation
- Design of realtime seismic and GPS networks to deliver earthquake information.
- Development of new methodologies for rapid source characterization and hazard prediction.
- Applications of earthquake alert systems, assessment of system performance, and societal response.
- Developing new tools for data retrieval, access and visualization for open public and researchers
- Information, Education and Outreach activities for mitigation seismic risk
- Mărmureanu, A., C. Ionescu, and C. O. Cioflan. “Advanced real-time acquisition of the Vrancea earthquake early warning system.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 31.2 (2011): 163-169.
- Grecu, Bogdan, Cristian Neagoe, and Dragos Tataru. “Seismic noise characteristics at the Romanian broadband seismic network.” Journal of Earthquake Engineering 16.5 (2012): 644-661.
- Neagoe, Cristian, Liviu Marius Manea, and Constantin Ionescu. “Romanian complex data center for dense seismic network.” Annals of Geophysics 54.1 (2011): 9-16.
- Neagoe, C., and C. Ionescu. “Toward a dense real-time seismic network in Romania.” Romanian Reports in Physics 61.2 (2009): 359-366.
- NERIES – Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology
- NERA – Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation
- SAFER – Seismic Early Warning for Europe
- REAKT – Strategies and tools for Real Time EArthquake RisK ReducTion
- DACEA – Cross-border System for Earthquake Alert
- EPOS – European Plate observing System
- ROEDUSEIS – Romanian Educational Seismic Network
- RESYR– Real time integrated earthquake early warning system for Romania
- Head: Dr. Alexandru Marmureanu, SR I, physicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Bogdan Grecu, SR I, geophysicist, email@example.com
- Dr. Dragos Tataru, SR III, eng. geophysicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Bogdan Zaharia, SR III, eng. physicist, email@example.com
- Dr.Cristian Neagoe, SR, engineer, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Marius Craiu, SR , eng. physicist, email@example.com
- Dr. Andreea Craiu, SR , eng. physicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Maria Rogozea, SR, eng. physicist, email@example.com
- Drd. Alexandra Muntean, JR, eng. geophysicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Drd. Nastase Eduard, JR, physicist, email@example.com
- Drd. Daniel Paulescu, JR , physicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Anton Danet, IT, email@example.com
- Liviu Manea, IT, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Stefan Radulescu. IT. email@example.com
- Mioara Chircea, operator, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Constanta Ilie, operator, email@example.com
- Andreea Tolea, operator, firstname.lastname@example.org
- George Chircea, technician, email@example.com
- Viorel Pirvu, technician, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Eugen Costinescu, technician email@example.com
National Data Centre
Romanian authorities have designated National Institute for Earth Physics as the National Data Centre (ROM_NDC) of Romania for implementation and verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).
ROM_NDC is responsible for operation and maintenance of the certified seismological station Cheia-Muntele Rosu (MLR) included in the auxiliary seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). MLR fulfills its mission by locally recording of continuous seismic data and forwarded directly to the International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna, upon request, at any time through on-line connections and VSAT transmission. ROM_NDC staff ensures station monitoring, data quality checking, transmission and archiving.
Another major role of ROM_NDC is to provide Romanian authorities with technical advice on all aspects of CTBT verification, including assessments of events likely to create concern in the framework of compliance with the CTBT.
Main activities and functions
- ROM_NDC co-operates with CTBT Organization (CTBTO) for upgrading and maintaining of the MLR seismic station at the technical and operational standards required by CTBT
- ROM_NDC regularly receives, processes and analyzes the data recorded by IMS network, as well the products of the IDC from Vienna, Austria
- ROM_NDC issues reviewed seismic bulletins (REBs), containing the events located on the Romania’s territory using national seismic dense network. Quarterly reports containing comparison between seismic events with ML ≥ 3.0 listed in the Romanian REBs and the ones located by IDC are sent to IDC. This comparative analysis shows that an important number of Romanian events with local magnitude over 3.0 are commonly missed in the IDC REB solutions. Moreover, due to the high coverage of stations, solutions calculated at ROM_NDC are much better constrained in terms of epicenter parameters.
- ROM_NDC participates to the CTBTO tests and exercises, organized for assessment of the global monitoring system performances
- ROM_NDC co-operates and exchanges data with the other National Data Centers of the CTBT state members
- ROM_NDC supports Romanian participation to the CTBTO activities by continuously sharing with IDC of the data recorded by the Plostina infrasound array
- ROM_NDC ensures seismic monitoring using BURAR array under cooperation between NIEP and Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), USA
IMS station in Romania
Romania hosts an auxiliary seismological station of the IMS – Cheia-Muntele Rosu (AS081-MLR). AS081-MLR seismic station is in continuous operation since 1970. AS081-MLR station is located near the Cheia village, in the Ciucas Mountains, with 45.49o N latitude, 25.95o E longitude, and 1360 m altitude and the site geology consists of limestone and conglomerate, Cretaceous flysch.
Since 2008, seismic system at AS081-MLR station consists of:
- Seismic equipment at MLR site:
- broadband seismic sensor, STS-2 (Streckeisen), and strong motion sensor, EpiSensor ES-T, FBA (Kinemetrics, Inc.), both located in tunnel
- Quanterra datalogger with GPS antenna, Q330 HR (Kinemetrics, Inc.)
- communications modules (fiber optic modem, wireless router)
- field enclosure, including power system
- Local control center at MLR observatory (LCC):
- Standard Station Interface (SSI) data collection and transmission software installed on local PC
- communication modules (fiber optic modem, wireless router, hub)
- 200 m fiber optic link between LCC and seismic equipment (in the tunnel)
- uninterruptible power supply unit
- Communication equipment:
- link between AS081-MLR station and ROM_NDC: TCP/IP connection via local provider
- satellite communications equipment (VSAT) for the data link between the AS081-MLR and IDC and between ROM_NDC and IDC
- The law regarding the regulation of Romania’s participation to the global verification system by seismological monitoring in support of Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) – Memorandum No. C3/4246/23.12.1993
- The law regarding the ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty by the Romanian Parliament – No. 152/04.10.1999
- Government Decision for amending and supplementing Government Decision no. 1313/1996 regarding the establishment of National Institute for Earth Physics – No. 702/19.07.2001 (establishment of the National Data Center)
- Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Romania concerning the establishment and operation of a seismic monitoring station in Romania, September 2000
The Laboratory personnel is composed of four PhD senior researchers, four engineers, two technicians and 6 workers.
- Head: Dr. Popa Mihaela, SR I, physicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Ghica Daniela Veronica, SR II, engineer, email@example.com
- Dr. Rogozea Maria Marilena, SR, physicist, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Borleanu Felix Victor Laurențiu, SR III, physicist, email@example.com
- Mr. Podasca Ioan, engineer, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Mr. Butnaru Dinu, engineer, email@example.com
- Mr. Niculicea Sandu, engineer, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Mr. Dumitrescu Valentin, engineer, email@example.com
- Mrs. Pompilian Mioara, technician, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Mrs. Dumitru Doina, technician, email@example.com
- Mr. Tudureanu Petru, worker
- Mr. Vovc Tomiuc Ion, worker
- Mr. Perdei Ilie, worker
- Mr. Letcan Mihai, worker
- Mrs. Buzatu Corina, worker
- Mr. Pîrvu Ion, worker
Department for lithosphere structure and dynamics
The department is working since the INCDFP foundation, in 1994, and it has as principal goal the research of the lithosphere structure and dynamics at regional and local scale, employing seismic and seismologic methods. Subjects as dynamics of the lithosphere are also followed and study of the movements of the crust using GPS and satellite methods.
Main research directions:
- Lithosphere structure at regional and local scale;
- Dynamics of the lithosphere by complex interpretation of the actual movements of the crust;
- New models at the geologic and tectonic scale, having elements of the physical properties of the rocks, with direct application in seismic hazard assessment;
- Studies of the crustal seismicity and seismotectonics and assessment of the dynamic properties of the crust. In the last years several studies about the natural hazard at a local and regional scale were performed:
- Microzonation studies (local seismic hazard) of densely populated areas, with special view to the Bucharest area.
- The seismic tomography of the main hydropower dams.
Future research directions:
- Methodology for assessing the local seismic amplification using data from seismology and applied geophysics using new non-invasive new methods. Responsible: Dr. eng. Andrei Bala; dr. Doru Mateciuc.
- The definition of crustal stress resulting from recent geotectonic movements as well as the mechanisms of crustal earthquakes and subcrustal in Romania. Responsible: Dr. eng. Andrei Bala.
Participation of the Department in International Projects and Programmes
The two projects VRANCEA 99 and VRANCEA 2001 belong to the lithosphere program of the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 461, University of Karlsruhe, Germany: STRONG EARTHQUAKES: A CHALLENGE FOR GEOSCIENCES AND CIVIL ENGINEERING. They are presented in the following Figure.
The interpretation of deep seismic data collected in some previous projects in several areas of Romania has been the main target of these studies. Mainly the final models and geological interpretation of the international VRANCEA 99 and VRANCEA 2001 projects were performed and published in 3 papers in Tectonophysics: Tectonophysics, 340, 233-256, 2001; Tectonophysics, 410, 251-272, 2005; Tectonophysics, 430, 1-25, 2007.
VRANCEA 99 project:
German team: Dr. Franz Hauser, Dr. Claus Prodehl, Dr. Werner Fielitz
Romanian team: Dr. Victor Raileanu, Dr. Andrei Bala
A P-wave velocity model was performed in 2001 (Tectonophysics, 340, 233-256, 2001). Based on geometry of P-wave model and on the later arrivals of the S-waves, a S-wave velocity model and a density crustal model is carried out (Tectonophysics, 410, 251-272, 2005). The S-wave model show a increasing in depth of S wave velocities and a slighter variation on the horizontal direction. In sedimentary cover S-wave velocity increase from less 1.0 km/s at surface to Vs=3.25 km/s at its base located at 8-11 km depth. In the crystalline crust Vs increases from 3,40 km/s at the top of basement to 4.07 km/s at Moho. Poisson ratio’s is variable in sedimentary layer, between 0.22-0.33 and in cristalline crust about 0.24-0.25. Density of sediments is increasing as well from 2.35 g/cm3 at surface to 2.62 g/cm3 at base. Cristalline rocks have 2.70 g/cm3 in upper crust and 2.85 g/cm3 in lower crust. Upper mantle has about 3.25 g/cm3. Composition of sedimenatry cover is variable from sands, sandstones and clays in upper part to limestones, sandstones, conglomerates and dolomites at base. Cristalline crust has some metasediments on the top of basement, granite, granodiorite, granite-gneiss and/or felsic amphibolite-gneiss for middle levels and gneiss and/or amphibolite for lower crust.
VRANCEA 2001 project
German team: Dr. Franz Hauser, Dr. Claus Prodehl, Dr. Werner Fielitz, Dr. Michael Landes
Romanian team: Dr. Victor Raileanu, Dr. Andrei Bala
In order to study the lithospheric structure in Romania a 450 km long WNW – ESE trending seismic refraction project was carried out in August/September 2001. It runs from the Transylvanian Basin across the East Carpathian Orogen and the Vrancea seismic region to the foreland areas with the very deep Neogene Focsani Basin and the North Dobrogea Orogen on the Black Sea.
A total of ten shots with charge sizes 300 – 1500 kg were recorded by over 700 geophones. The data quality of the experiment was variable, depending primarily on charge size but also on local geological conditions. The data interpretation indicates a multi-layered structure with variable thicknesses and velocities. The sedimentary stack comprises up to 7 layers with seismic velocities of 2.0 – 5.9 km/s. It reaches a maximum thickness of about 22 km within the Focsani Basin area. The sedimentary succession is composed of (1) the Carpathian nappe pile, (2) the post-collisional Neogene Transylvanian Basin, which covers the local Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Tarnava Basin, (3) the Neogene Focsani Basin in the foredeep area, which covers autochthonous Mesozoic and Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks as well as a probably Permo-Triassic graben structure of the Moesian Platform, and (4) the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the North Dobrogea Orogen. The underlying crystalline crust shows considerable thickness variations in total as well as in its individual subdivisions, which correlate well with the Tisza-Dacia, Moesian and North Dobrogea crustal blocks. The lateral velocity structure of theses blocks along the seismic line remains constant with about 6.0 km/s along the basement top and 7.0 km/s above the Moho. The Tisza-Dacia block is about 33 to 37 km thick and shows low velocity zones in its uppermost 15 km, which are presumably due to basement thrusts imbricated with sedimentary successions related to the Carpathian Orogen. The crystalline crust of Moesia does not exceed 25 km and is covered by up to 22 km of sedimentary rocks. The North Dobrogea crust reaches a thickness of about 44 km and is probably composed of thick Eastern European crust overthrusted by a thin 1 – 2 km thick wedge of the North Dobrogea Orogen.
A crustal model based on P-wave arrivals is performed and then interpretated in structural terms (Tectonophysics, 430, 1-25, 2007).
Collaborative Research Center 461: “Strong Earthquakes: A challenge for Geosciences and Civil Engineering”, University of Karlsruhe, Germany
More details about projects within the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 461 related to lithosphere study: http://www-sfb461.physik.uni-karlsruhe.de
Deep seismic sounding of the Vrancea zone project leaders: dr. J.R.R. Ritter, dr. T. Forbriger, Geophysical Institute, Karlsruhe University. Romanian partners: S. Balan, Gh. Marmureanu, V. Raileanu, A. Bala, National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest, Romania.
Seismic tomography of the carpathian arc project leaders: prof. dr. Friedemann Wenzel, Geophysical Institute, Karlsruhe University. Romanian partners: dr. Mircea Radulian, National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest, Romania.
Geotechnical and seismic microzonation of Bucharest project leaders: prof. J. Rohn. Romanian partners: V. Ciugudean, Metroul s.a.; M. Radulian, S. Balan, A. Bala, National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest, Romania
NATO SCIENCE FOR PEACE PROJECTS
NATO SfP Project 981882, 2006 – 2009:
SITE-EFFECT ANALYSES FOR THE EARTHQUAKE-ENDANGERED METROPOLIS BUCHAREST,ROMANIA Co-director Stefan F. Balan (PPD), Co-director Andrei Bala
NATO SfP Project 981882, 2006 – 2009:
SITE-EFFECT ANALYSES FOR THE EARTHQUAKE-ENDANGERED METROPOLIS BUCHAREST,ROMANIA Co-director Stefan F. Balan (PPD), Co-director Andrei Bala
NATO science grants
NATO Collaborative Linkage Grant – EST.CLG.974792 – 1999 – 2001: “The Earth Lithosphere under the Vrancea area from seismic refraction investigation”. The project assisted the Romanian participants in the VRANCEA’99 project by providing additional travel and living expenses during data interpretation. NATO country Co-director: Dr. Claus Prodehl. Romanian Co-director: Dr. Victor Raileanu.
NATO Computer Networking Supplement – EST.CNS.976375 – 1999 – 2000: supported the upgrading of the computer network in the Laboratory of Lithosphere Structure and Laboratory of Seismology of NIEP. NATO country Co-director: Dr. Claus Prodehl. Romanian Co-director: Dr. Andrei Bala.
NATO Collaborative Linkage Grant – EST.CLG.978848 – 2001 – 2003: “Structure of the Earth’s lithosphere beneath Vrancea area, Romania, from seismic –refraction and tomography inversion”. NATO country Co-director : Prof. Dr. Friedemann Wenzel. Romanian Co-director: Dr. Andrei Bala. This project supported the Romanian scientists to produce in cooperation with German scientists basic data for the investigation of the upper lithosphere in the Vrancea area of Romania, where within a small volume strong and destructive earthquakes occur. The project is linked to the CRC 461 at the University of Karlsruhe: “Strong Earthquakes: A challenge for Geosciences and Civil Engineering”.
NATO Networking Infrastructure Grant – EST.NIG.978382 – 2001 – 2002: “Improving the networking of the Romanian institutes of physics and their u plink connection to the Internet”. NATO country Co-director : Dr. Klaus Bonjer. Romanian Co-director: Dr. Andrei Bala. This project was designed to improve and upgrade the link between the National Institute for Earth Physics and the National Institute for Physics of Materials, which is the main node for all the local networks of the physics research institutes located in Magurele campus. The uplink to the ROEDU.NET, which is the Internet service provider for all the institutes in Magurele campus, was also considerably improved.
Lithosphere structure study from seismic and seismological data; the structure of seismic velocities in the Earth crust with applications in the optimization of earthquake parameters determination – scientific responsible dr. ing. Andrei Bala. Last year a project the research project 90/2014 was accepted, in which INCDFP is a partner. The project which will activate until 2016.
Integrated Study of the seismotectonics in Romania, the local seismicity and earthquake mechanisms in order to improve seismic hazard of Romania and seismic risk reduction – Scientific director drd. Mihai Diaconescu. The theme adopted the NUCLEU Program: PN09-01 07. Geophysical Model of the systems of active fractures in Romania.
Development of the current GPS network of INCDFP and its integration into existing GPS networks in Romania. The study of crustal movements in Romania and defining local state of stress using the GPS network in INCDFP. Scientific responsible – dr. Doru Mateciuc.
Integrated technics for the geospatial monitoring of seismicity and creating a methodology for assessing the seismic hazard given by the Vrancea area. In the Lab 400 a research project was approved “Integrated Geospatial Techniques for Seismic Area Forecast in Vrancea,” which will continue until 2016.Scientific responsible – dr. Doru Mateciuc.
- Bala A., Quantitative modelling of seismic site amplification in an earthquake-endangered capital city: Bucharest, Romania , Natural Hazards (2014), 72, 1429–1445.
- A. BALA, C. ARION, A. ALDEA, IN SITU BOREHOLE MEASUREMENTS AND LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AS PRIMARY TOOLS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SEISMIC SITE EFFECTS, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 65, No. 1, P. 285–298, 2013
- A. BALA, MODELLING OF SEISMIC SITE AMPLIFICATION BASED ON IN SITU GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS IN BUCHAREST, ROMANIA, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 65, No. 2, P. 495–511, 2013.
- Raileanu, V., Tataru, D., Grecu, B., Crustal Models in ROMANIA – I. Moesian Platform, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 64, No. 2, P. 539–554, 2012
- Raileanu, V., Tataru, D., Grecu, B., Bala, A., CRUSTAL MODELS IN ROMANIA – II. MOLDAVIAN PLATFORM AND ADJACENT AREAS, Rom Jour Phys, 57, 9-10, 1438-1454, 2012
- Bala A., Hannich D., Ritter J.R.R., Ciugudean – Toma V., Geological and Geophysical Model of the Quaternary Layers based on in situ measurements in Bucharest, Romania, Romanian Reports in Physics, vol. 63, 250-274, 2011.
- Grecu B., Răileanu V., Bălă A., Tătaru D., Estimation of site effects in the Eastern part of Romania on the basis of H/V ratios of S and coda waves generated by Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes, Rom. Journ. Phys., Vol. 56, 563-577, Bucharest, 2011.
- Molinari, I., Raileanu, V. and Morelli, A. A crustal model for the Eastern Alps region and a new Moho map in South-Eastern Europe. Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAAG), 2011.
- Bala, A., Balan, S.F., Ritter, J.R.R., Rohn, J., Huber G., Hannich, D., Site-effect analyses for the earthquake-endangered metropolis Bucharest, Romania, 127 p, Ed. Univ. “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iasi, 2010. ISBN: 978-973-703-546-2.
- Bala, A., Hannich, D., Ritter, J.R.R.,Ciugudean – Toma, V., Geological and Geophysical Model of the Quaternary Layers based on in situ measurements in Bucharest, Romania, Romanian Reports in Physics, in print, 2010.
- Bala A., Grecu B., Ciugudean V., Răileanu V., Dynamic properties of the Quaternary sedimentary rocks and their influence on seismic site effects. Case study in Bucharest city, Romania, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 29, 144-154, 2009.
- Bala A., Aldea A., Hannich D., Ehret D., Răileanu V., Methods to assess the site effects based on in situ measurements in Bucharest city, Romania, Rom. Reports in Physics 61, No. 2, 335-346, 2009.
- Bala, A., Cristea, P., Raileanu, V., Nitica, C., Continuous Distribution of Elastic Parameters of the Shallow Quaternary Layers along the 3C Seismic Profile East Bucharest, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 60, no. 1, 111-129, 2008.
- B. Zaharia, M. Radulian, M. Popa, B. Grecu, A. Bala, D. Tataru, Estimation of the local response using Nakamura method for Bucharest area, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 60, no. 1, 131-144, 2008.
- Bala A., Zihan I., Ciugudean V., Raileanu V., Grecu B., Physical and Dynamic properties of the Quaternary Sedimentary Layers in and around Bucharest City, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 60, no. 2, 389 – 401, 2008.
- F. Hauser , V. Raileanu , W. Fielitz , C. Dinu , M. Landes , A. Bala , C. Prodehl, Seismic crustal structure between the Transylvanian Basin and the Black Sea, Romania, Tectonophysics, 430, 1 – 25, 2007.
- V. Raileanu, A. Bala, B. Grecu, Local Seismic Effects in Sites Located in the South and Central part of Transylvania based on spectral ratios, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 59, No. 1, p 165–178, 2007.
- Knapp J.H., Knapp C.C., Raileanu V., Matenco L., Mocanu V., Dinu C, 2005. Crustal constraints of the origin of mantle seismicity in the Vrancea zone, Romania: The case for active continental lithospheric delamination.Tectonophysics, 410, 311-323.
- Bala A., Raileanu V., Zihan I., Ciugudean V., Grecu B., Physical and dynamic properties of the shallow sedimentary rocks in Bucharest Metropolitan area, Romanian Reports in Physics , 58, 2, 221 – 250, 2006.
- Bala A., Raileanu V., Mandrescu N., Zihan I., Dananau E., Physical properties of the Quaternary sedimentary rocks in the Eastern Bucharest area, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 57, No. 1, p. 151–163, 2005.
- Raileanu V., Bala A., Hauser F., Prodehl C., Fielitz W., Crustal properties from S-wave and gravity data along a seismic refraction profile in Romania, Tectonophysics, 410, 251 – 272, 2005.
- Raileanu V., Bala A., Grecu B., An assessment of local seismic effects in sites located from the North of Dobrogea to the Eastern Carpathians Bend, Romanian Reports in Physics, vol. 57, 2, 267 – 279, 2005.
- Bala, A., Radulian, M., Popescu, E., (2003), Earthquakes distribution and their focal mechanism in correlation with the active tectonic zones of Romania, Journal of Geodynamics, 36, 129-145, 2003.
- Bala A., Raileanu V., Popa Mihaela, Some Physical properties of the crust along the seismic refraction profile VRANCEA’ 99, Romanian Jour. of Physics, vol. 47, 9 –10, 933 – 944, 2002.
- Radulian, M., Popescu Emilia, Bala, A., Utale Ana, Catalog of fault plane solutions for the earthquakes occurred on the romanian territory, Romanian Jour. of Physics, vol. 47, 5 – 6, 663-685, 2002.
- Radulian, M., Bala, A., Popescu, E., Earthquakes distribution and their focal mechanism in seismogenic zones of Romania, Romanian Jour. of Physics, vol. 47, 9 – 10, 945 – 963, 2002.
- Bala, A., Diaconescu, M., Biter, M., Spatial distribution of the earthquakes in the Vrancea zone and tectonic correlations, Romanian Journal of Physics, 46, vol.7-8, 459 – 474, 2001.
- Hauser, F., Raileanu, V., Fielitz, W., Bala, A., Prodehl, C., Polonic, G., Schulze, A. VRANCEA99 – The Crustal structure beneath the southeastern Carpathians and the Moesian Platform from a refraction seismic profile in Romania, Tectonophysics, vol. 340, 3-4, 233 -256, 2001.
- Nacu, V., Mateciuc., D., Biter, M., Radulescu, F., Grecu, V., Crustal deformations parameters using GPS measurements in the Romanian territory, Romanian J. Phys., 46, 9-10, 629 – 636, 2001.
- Raileanu, V., Bala, A. Some correlations between the distribution of the crustal earthquake depths and rheological properties within the Moesian Platform and its northern neighborhood, Romanian Journal of Physics, 46, vol.7-8, 475 – 484, 2001.
- Raileanu, V., Local seismic effects in five sites south of Bacau , Romania , using spectral ratio derived from crustal seismic refraction data, Romanian Journal of Physics, 46, 9 – 10, 617 – 627, 2001.
- Head of the department: Dr. Ing. Andrei BALA, CS I – firstname.lastname@example.org – CV
- Dr. Doru Mateciuc, CS III, senior scientific researcher;
- Drd. Mihai Diaconescu, CS III, senior scientific researcher.
Engineering Seismology Laboratory
The “Department of Engineering Seismology” is the “link” between seismology and earthquake engineering domains. The main directions of research are listed below. Besides of the research content the department has also soil testing capabilities as : two resonant columns (Drnevich and Hardin) with which we compute shear and elastic soil moduli, damping ratio of soil sample, all function of the relative strains in the soil deposit which is assimilated with strong earthquakes. We have also a classic triaxial testing machine. All these tests give us the input for research in non-linear soil behavior during strong earthquakes. One important thing to note is that the “Department of Engineering Seismology” is enrolled since 2012 as research infrastructure in “Distributed Network of European Research Infrastructure Project” EPOS. The department during the time was involved in large construction projects for computing the non-linear behavior of soil, as the “Nuclear Electric Power Plant at Cernavoda”, “Parliament House” and different industrial projects. The department is involved in numerous national and international projects ( see project chapter), also it has an active presence in scientific events, national and international and members published a lot of books about our research subjects (see publications chapter).
Main directions of research activity
- Soil mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, during strong earthquakes. Theoretical and experimental studies on resonant columns: Drnevich and Hardin;
- Local effects and seismic response of the soil deposits;
- Development and implementation of nonlinear seismology in applications of hazard assessment and seismic risk mitigation of densely populated areas. Nonlinear behavior of soil during of strong and deep Vrancea earthquakes
- Vulnerability studies of urban areas, industrial structures and transportation networks;
- Studies of seismic microzoning of densely populated localities in Romania. Improving existing microzoning studies.
- Theoretical studies of engineering seismology (soil – structure interaction, nonlinear effects, changing of the fundamental period of the soil-structure system during strong earthquakes, assessment of destructive seismic potential from seismic records; studies to improve seismic codes, etc.);
- Phenomenological-statistical analysis and studies of the seismic hazard induced by Vrancea source considering statistical system behavior and using typical mathematical models, particularly applied in current researches.
- Participation in the development of standards for the seismic hazard map of Romanian territory, in cooperation with other departments and institutions.
- Certainties and uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis during of strong and deep Vrancea earthquakes.
- Dr. Ing. Bălan Ștefan Florin, Dr. Hab. Vasile Alcaz , Assoc. Prof. Dr. Petya Trifonova ,Nalan ÜKER; „Reţeaua de Siguranţă în Caz de Cutremur de la Marea Neagră ESNET” ISBN 978-606-528-193-6; Bucureşti: CD PRESS, 2014 ( tradusa in 3 limbi: Română, Bulgară şi Turcă).
- Enescu,D.,Marmureanu,Gh.,Enescu,B.(2004).A procedure for estimating the seismic hazard generated by Vrancea earthquakes and its application. II. Attenuation Curves,Romanian Reports in Physics,Vol.56,Number I,124-128;
- Ritter J.R.R., Balan S.F., Bonjer K.-P., Diehl T., Forbinger T., Marmureanu G., Wenzel F., Wirth W. (2005). Broadband urban seismology in the Bucharest metropolitan area, Seismological Research Letters, 76, no.5;
- Mândrescu N., Radulian M., Mărmureanu G. (2006).Geological, geophysical and seismological criteria for local response evaluation in Bucharest urban area, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering , 27, 367-393, Elsevier Ltd.;
- Cioflan C.O.,Marmureanu A., Mărmureanu Gh.(2009), Nonlinearity in site effects evaluation, Romanian Journal of Physics, Vol. 54, No.9-10,p.951-964;
- Mărmureanu,Gh,Cioflan,C.O.,Marmureanu,Alex.(2011).Intensity seismic hazard map of Romania by probabilistic and (neo)deterministic approaches, linear and nonlinear analyses, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 63, No. 1, P. 226–239;
- Cioflan,C.O.,Mărmureanu,Alex., Marmureanu, Gh.(2011).The quantitative evidence of the soil nonlinear behaviour during of strong Vrancea earthquakes in real/nonlinear seismology, Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 63, No. 3, P.839- 851
- Marmureanu,Gh.,Marmureanu,Alex.,Cioflan,C.O.,Ionescu,C.(2013).Esential Tools to mitigate Vrancea strong earthquakes effects on Moldavian urban Environment, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, January 2013, Vol.12, No. 1, 65-79,ISI quoted;
- Mărmureanu,G.,Cioflan,C.O.,Marmureanu,A.,Ionescu,C.(2015).How long time will go with linear seismology ?Romanian Journal of Physics,Nr.3-43,Vol.60; Romanian Journal of Physics,Nr.3-43,Vol.60;
- Marmureanu,Gh.,Cioflan,C.O.,Marmureanu,Al.,Ionescu,C.(2015). Bridging the Gap between Nonlinear Seismology as Reality and Earthquake Engineering, Springer Verlag, Series, Title: Geotechnical, Geological & Earthquake Engineering, Title of Book: Perspective on European Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Volume 2, 2015.
- “A model of seismic focus and related statistical distributions of earthquakes”, Phys. Lett. A357 462 (2006);
- “Scaling and universal power laws in time series of seismic events”, Roum. J. Phys. 53 593 (2008).
- Toma-Danila D., Zulfikar C., Manea E.F., Cioflan C.O. (2015) – Improved seismic risk estimation for Bucharest, based on multiple hazard scenarios and analytical methods; Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 73, pp. 1-16 (doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2015.02.013).
- Toma-Danila D., Cioflan C.O., Balan S.F., Manea E.F. (2015) – Characteristics and results of the near real-time system for estimating the seismic damage in Romania, Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 33-41
- Toma-Danila D. (2012) – Real-Time Earthquake damage assessment and GIS analysis of two vulnerable counties in the Vrancea Seismic Area, Romania; Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Vol. 11, No. 12, pp. 2265-2274
- Wenzel F., Bonjer K.-P., Fiedrick K., Lungu D., Mărmureanu G., Wirth F.,Bose M. (2005).
- Real Time Earthquake Information Systems in Disasters and Society-from Hazard Assessment to Risk Reduction, edited by Dorthe Malzahn and Tina Plapp, Logos Verlag, Berlin, ISBN Nr.3-8325-0585-7;
- Marmureanu,Gh.(Coordinating)(2009).Researches on Seismic Hazard at National and Local
- Level .Seismic Local Hazard (Microzonation) and General Hazard Maps ,Ed. Tehnopress
- (Accredited by CNCSIS ,Cod CNCSIS 89), ISBN:978-973- 702 698-9),320 p.;
- Marmureanu,Gh.(Coordinating)(2009). Researches on Management of Disasters Generated by Romanian Earthquakes,Ed.Tehnopress (Accredited by CNCSIS ,Cod CNCSIS 89),ISBN:978-973-702 701-6),766 p.;
- Mandrescu,N.,Radulian,M.,Marmureanu,Gh.,Ionescu,C.(2008).Integrate Research of the Geological,Geophysical and Seismological Data for Local Response Evaluation in
- Bucharest Urban Area,Romanian Academy Publishing House,ISBN:978-973-27-1635- 9; 140p.
- Marmureanu,Gh.,Cioflan,C.O.,Marmureanu,Alex.(2010).Researches on Local Seismic Hazard (Microzonation) for Metropolitan Bucharest Area, Ed. Tehnopress (Accredited by CNCSIS ,Cod CNCSIS 89),ISBN:978-973-702-809-9 ,470 p.
- Mărmureanu,Gh.(2015).Certainties/uncertainties in risk & seismic hazard assessment generated by strong and deep Vrancea earthquakes, Romanian Academy of Science Publishing House, in press
- Modeling of Local Seismic Effects Induced by Crustal Earthquakes from the Tulcea, Galati-Tecuci, Campulung, Banat Zones and Seismic Risk Evaluation of these Territories. 2007-2010; (Lead partner).
- NATO Project No.: “Site-Effect analysis for the earthquake endangered metropolis Bucharest, Romania” (2006-2008); partner.
- “Danube Cross-border System for Earthquakes Alert” (2010-2012), Programm: Romania-Bulgaria Cross Border Cooperation Programme 2007-2013. Lead partner
- REAKT Strategies and tools for Real Time EArthquake RisK ReducTion www.reaktproject.eu
- Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work) – ESNET (2012-2014); Joint Operational Programme: “Black Sea 2007-2013”. Lead partner. http://esnet.infp.ro/
- BrIdging the Gap between Seismology and Earthquake Engineering: from the seismicity of Romania towards a refined implementation of Seismic action EN1998-1 in earthquake resistant design of buildings (BIGSEES) (Lead partner)
- Spaceborne Multiple Aperture Interferometry and Sequential Patterns Extraction Techniques for Accurate Directional Ground and Infrastructure Stability Measurements (DGI-SAR) (2012-2016) partner.
- The Laboratory is composed of 4 senior researchers and 2 PhD student)
- Dr.Eng. Stefan Florin Balan, senior researcher, Head of Department email@example.com
- Dr.Eng. Gheorghe Marmureanu, senior researcher, NATO expert firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Carmen O. Cioflan, senior researcher email@example.com
- Dr. Bogdan F. Apostol , senior researcher firstname.lastname@example.org
- Drd. Dragos Toma-Danila, researcher email@example.com
- Drd. Elena F. Manea, researcher
Magnetotelluric and Bioseismic Studies Laboratory